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中小企業別被阿米巴經營模式“忽悠”了
2016-11-18 16:06:11 作者:鄒捷 瀏覽次數:53241

阿米巴經營模式是由稻盛和夫先生于1963年在京瓷導入的一種經營管理模式。由于這種經營模式在京瓷取得的成功,使京瓷進入了世界500強企業的行列。隨后在老先生創辦的第二家企業KDDI(東京電電)中也植入阿米巴經營思想,最終使其創辦了兩家世界500強企業。隨著稻盛哲學與阿米巴經營模式在中國的推廣,以及盛和塾在中國企業會員人數的日益增多,越來越多的中小企業主開始關注阿米巴經營模式,并紛紛在各自的企業里導入阿米巴模式。但十分可惜的是,目前阿米巴在中小企業中導入的成功率不足20%。

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可以說,阿米巴經營模式的優點是顯而易見的,不僅可以為企業培養優秀的經營人才、養成全員經營的意識。而且可以通過阿米巴經營模式的導入,改變西方管理學中績效考核的方式。提出單位時間附加價值概念,著重考核員工單位時間內所創造的企業價值。并以此作為績效考核的標準。更關鍵的是,單位時間附加價值的考核又不與員工的業績掛鉤,配合稻盛哲學在企業內的落地,使員工工作思想以及行為發生改變,增強企業的凝聚力。為此,許多中小企業主在稻盛和夫先生的阿米巴模式光環下,紛紛照搬京瓷模式,但由于在企業內推廣落地的失敗,導致阿米巴經營模式漸漸被摒棄。

在此,對于阿米巴經營究竟是否適合中小企業的課題孕育而生。對于“京瓷究竟為何成功呢?”我想談談我的看法。首先,京瓷的成功有著十分重要的外部環境。1963年當時的日本經濟正處于高速增長期間。在這樣的大環境背景下,生產力的不足需要得到充分的解決。那時候的日本被稱之為“世界工廠”許多產品零部件的生產都由日本國內完成組裝后銷往海外。京瓷的產品多以零部件為主,有著嚴格的制造工藝和流程,加之宏觀經濟環境下對于產業產品的需求,京瓷式的生產及銷售取得了突破性的增長。導入阿米巴的前提也是因為需要擴大生產力,提高生產效率。其次,當時的京瓷產品正處于寡頭市場的行業環境,行業內同類競爭對手數量較少。在這樣的前提下,產品的價格并不是最終由市場而決定,這也是京瓷為何能連續保持高增長,高利潤的主要因素。最后,流程決定了市場。由于所處的經濟大環境及行業環境所導致的供不應求,京瓷根據自己的標準設定了嚴格的生產流程。當時京瓷,不需要考慮許多市場競爭因素,只需把精力放在產品研發,生產流程的梳理中即可。這些外部的宏觀環境因素加之稻盛先生阿米巴經營模式及經營哲學,才成就了京瓷的今天。

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反觀今天的中小企業,產品或者服務并不具備技術優勢,更不具備價格競爭的優勢。許多中小企業的生產流程尚未梳理完畢,許多績效考核指標尚未正確理清,在這種情況下,通過相關阿米巴課程的培訓,在那些無知的咨詢公司,黑心的咨詢師誤導下,企業主們少則幾十萬,多則幾百萬,花了大代價在公司內推行了阿米巴經營模式。最終的結果,就如文中上述所提到的,效果差,代價高,最終被摒棄。一些中小企業沒有自己沉淀的企業文化,僅僅把京瓷哲學以及京瓷的阿米巴阿米巴經營哲學一字不差的照搬照抄。想僅僅依靠京瓷的那套哲學+實學的經營管理方式讓中小企業實現收入最大化,費用最小化,在我看來,只不過是紙上談兵,落不到實處。

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那么,哪些中小企業可以真正導入阿米巴經營呢?首先,財務數據的完善性與及時性十分關鍵。財務是戰略的起點,也是戰略的終點,經營管理也是一樣。不會有任何一位企業主會為了戰略及管理去犧牲最終的財務數據。經營管理的成功與否,最終還是反應到企業財務數據中。因此,根據阿米巴經營會計的特點,財務數據的及時性和完善性將是作為阿米巴導入過程中的重點。財務數據的缺失及延后,將嚴重影響阿米巴經營數據的效果。其次,行業外部環境處于上升期。單單依靠阿米巴經營,提高企業凝聚力,培養經營性人才是個長期管理的過程,想在短期內取得效果,需要企業主判斷企業所處的行業環境及外部經濟環境。阿米巴只是一個內控工具,對于產品及銷售額的提升并不能起到有效的作用。日本企業與中國企業主之間的差別在于,日企重節流、中國企業中開源。那么如何讓企業銷售收入能有顯著的提升,就要考慮行業環境、政府政策以及外部經濟環境的那些不可控因素了。許多導入阿米巴的企業都有這樣的困惑,為何導入了阿米巴,員工精神狀態改變了,工作環境改變了,但銷售收入還是上不去,產品的成本不降反升呢? 其實,就這兩年中國市場的大環境背景,內需的萎縮及部分行業的不景氣顯而易見,在這樣的大環境背景下,對于中小企業而言,我們只能忍耐,只能節流,只能做內控。想依靠阿米巴真正實現收入最大化,還是需要依賴于行業的市場環境以及企業的產品結構。最后,阿米巴導入需要與KPI相結合。在中國的企業,光靠哲學教導員工熱愛工作,付出不亞于任何人的努力,而不給予物質基礎的刺激,這樣的哲學是絕對落不了地的,尤其在中小企業。那么,如何將單位時間附加價值與目前企業用的KPI指標相掛鉤,如何正確評價員工工作態度、熱情及產出,就需要將阿米巴與KPI結合在一起。采用KPI的激勵,用阿米巴方式把企業的賬算清楚,用單位時間附加價值去考核員工工作的價值,給予正確的評價,采用制度化的獎罰激勵員工。或許才能使阿米巴經營模式在中國的企業得到有效的落地。

阿米巴不是神丹妙藥,稻盛和夫先生也不是教主。中小企業主在學習稻盛和夫哲學以及管理理論的同時,切莫照搬照抄,更不要把稻盛和夫先生神化、教主化。企業之道在于經營、經營之道在于管人、治人。稻盛和夫先生用行動告訴我們他是如何管理日本員工,但沒有告訴我們如何管理中國企業的員工。京瓷在日本的成功并不代表在中國也同樣成功,目前在中國的兩家京瓷分公司的經營,也絕不像咨詢公司口中所說的那么完美,那么優秀。希望中小企業的企業主們不要盲目追崇推行阿米巴,在推行阿米巴之前,先看一下自己企業的生產流程是否已經梳理完畢,財務數據是否可以支撐阿米巴的經營,企業戰略是否明確,員工培養及任用是否到達了阿米巴經營的層次。如果不具備這些前提條件的話,還是從流程梳理、生產管理再造、人員招聘培養這些基礎的工作開始做起,從導入TOP系統開始規范企業的運營管理及生產流程反而會比直接導入阿米巴經營來的更為直接,更為有效。在具備了上述條件后,再請一些真正的咨詢機構外腦導入阿米巴也為時不晚。

             --  阿米巴高級咨詢師      鄒捷


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