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企業戰略中所存在中的誤區
2013-11-28 17:20:11 作者:春林 瀏覽次數:294


“顧客時代”的來臨,徹底打破了產品時代的荒謬邏輯,企業管理由此回歸了它的真相:是顧客或消費者決定了“企業是什么”。簡單的說,在產品時代,企業組織內部生產什么產品,顧客就只能被動的購買什么產品,但是,在顧客時代,這個管理邏輯次序被顛倒了過來,顧客主動性的選擇與需要什么產品,企業組織內部就因需而動地生產什么產品,正是因為如此,德魯克才會大聲地提醒企業:每一個企業必須首先回答“誰是顧客?他們在哪里?”

這其中,“細分顧客”成為了顧客時代最重要的管理理念。事實上,圍繞著“細分顧客”的管理理念,誕生了大量的界定和挖掘顧客的方法和工具,通常來說,它們包括了我們已經熟知的產業戰略分析模型、SWOT分析法、價值鏈模型、基準化分析法等等,雖然它們看起來差異是如此的顯著,但實際上,它們都是從不同角度試圖界定和確認“顧客在哪里”。

但是,各種“細分顧客”的方法或工具,并未帶來想象中所期待的完美結果。事實上,當大量的企業在細分顧客群體、完善產品質量和提高服務能力后,顧客卻并不買賬,甚至是毫不留情地拋棄了企業的所謂“好產品”。企業常常被搞得莫名其妙、一頭霧水,搞不懂顧客為什么會遠離企業的產品或服務?事實上,隱藏在這種商業現象背后的幽靈是變幻莫測、不可預知的未來,它在無形中左右著企業的命運。

春林解析到長期以來,企業管理一直關注的核心問題,是“產品與顧客”之間的關系處理——他們將管理的主要精力,放在了產品與顧客之間一對一的關系確認上,很少或幾乎從不關注“企業與未來”之間的關系關聯和處理。在過去的企業管理者看來,產品與顧客之間存在著某種一對一的對應關系,找到了這種對應關系,就意味著企業勝利在望,因此,企業組織事先細分顧客的戰略設計,成為企業管理的頭等大事。它隱含著一種對待未來的看法:未來是不確定而危險的,所以需要盡可能地消滅它。

事實上,傳統的企業管理理論,尤其是自半個多世紀前誕生的戰略與決策理論總是圍繞著消除未來的不確定性來進行。無論是戰略與決策的設計學派、計劃學派、能力學派、資源學派等等學派,還是用于戰略與決策的產業分析模型、SWOT分析法、價值鏈模型、基準化分析法等等方法與模式,都是從自身優勢與劣勢、外部機會與威脅的分析入手,通過目標、項目和預算等一系列的程式化與數字化分解,來制定企業發展戰略計劃,企圖讓企業組織的“未來”變得清晰、明朗和確定。

企圖消滅未來不確定性的做法,似乎是一種無可挑剔的管理邏輯:未來不確定性是有害而危險的,所以需要消滅不確定性帶來的危害,但是,事實結果卻證明了他們的錯誤。


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